Turquoise is a type of combination of phosphates of copper and aluminum in hydrous structure, and the entire chemical or rather, mineral formula is quite long and complex with CuAl6(PO4)4(OH)8·4H2O as the scientifically given formula. At a glance, this means turquoise isn’t very hard on the Mohs scale, because long complex combinations of hydrates denote a certain fragility. Thus, turquoise has only a hardness of 5-6 on the Mohs scale, with the varying hardness dependent on the density of minute crystalline structures within it.
Turquoise forms from the weathering and oxidation processes of other minerals, so you can regard it as a secondary byproduct of other minerals. Turquoise comes about from acidic aqueous solutions, which after evaporating, left behind a percolation of turquoise on the existing mineral bedrock. This continual percolation results in turquoise deposits of varying quantity. Turquoise is a cryptocrystalline mineral, and it almost always occurs in massive form, although (very rare) small prismatic crystals are said to have been found in Virginia, USA.
The color of turquoise ranges from white to sky blue, and incorporates various shades of green. The most sought after color is the unique slight greenish hued sky blue color, although white colored turquoise is also quite popular for carving purposes.
Historically, turquoise has been much prized throughout the ages for its unique combination of green and blue. In fact, the unique color of turquoise was so prized by ancient peoples that the rich decorated their walls and floors with turquoise, while their rulers adorned themselves with turquoise, and bazaars traded freely in turquoise. The word turquoise probably came from the word “Turkish,” because of the high regard and usage of turquoise among the ancient Turkish people.
Turquoise was highly valued by almost all the ancient people of the Near East (regions surrounding the Middle East), the ancient Aztecs and other native Americans, and the ancient Chinese and Tibetans. In the Bible, turquoise is mentioned freely numerous times (the book of Revelations mentions turquoise), and it features in other ancient texts and scriptures. The high regard of turquoise among the ancient civilizations is likely due to the fact that turquoise was one of the first minerals to be used as a gemstone.
Turquoise deposits are typically found in arid regions of the world, like Australia, Iran, Egypt, and Nevada as well as Arizona, USA. Turquoise deposits are also found in China, Tibet, Chile, Kazakhstan, and Uzbekistan. In some cases, turquoise is recovered as a byproduct of mining operations of other minerals like copper, which is then sold to middlemen.
Metaphysically, turquoise strengthens all the chakras, and is a good stone for aligning the etheric and physical bodies. The stone is believed to offer protection as well to the wearer and to one’s property and surroundings.
Despite its blue color, turquoise is also regarded as a grounding stone, and useful to ground oneself during meditation. It has a soothing energy and can readily bring calmness to the mind, thus facilitating deep meditation.
Turquoise helps balance the yin and yang aspects of our psyche, since it is a combination of the blue fatherly sky and the green motherly earth. The energy of turquoise is very compatible with the heart and throat chakras, enhancing communication skills, kindness, and altruism. Turquoise helps us to relay our thoughts/ideas better to others, and to be understood. It helps one to recognize beauty within and without, and can kindle the sparks of romantic love for those in search of a partner.
Turquoise is known to be a general all-purpose healing stone and can help with a range of physical ailments and disorders. It is believed to strengthen the eyesight, and to help the body regenerate and repair itself.
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